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Mstislav Osipov
Mstislav Osipov

Can Minors Buy Plan B



As Texas swerved sharply to the right in recent decades, anti-abortion politicians vowed to run Planned Parenthood out of the state, enacting a cascade of restrictions. In 2011, Republican lawmakers slashed funding for the state family planning program by 66%, and more than 80 family planning clinics closed.




can minors buy plan b


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Today, in every state, sexually active teenagers can get contraceptives to protect themselves against unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases - even if they can't talk about sex with their parents. But some state and federal lawmakers want to take away teens' ability to protect themselves. They want to prevent sexually active teenagers from getting birth control unless they first tell their parents.


Some people say that allowing teenagers to get contraceptives without first telling a parent encourages them to become sexually active and that, conversely, requiring teenagers to tell their parents before they get birth control would discourage sexual activity. But research about how teenagers behave flatly contradicts this theory. Teenagers don't become sexually active because they can go to a family planning provider and get contraceptives confidentially. In fact, on average, young women in the U.S. have been sexually active for 22 months before their first visit to a family planning provider.1 And studies show that making contraceptives available to teenagers does not increase sexual activity. Students in schools that make condoms available without requiring parental notification are less likely to have ever had sexual intercourse than students at schools that don't provide condoms confidentially. Moreover, in schools where condoms are readily available, those teens who do have sex are twice as likely as other students to have used a condom during their last sexual encounter.2


The research thus shows that requiring teens to tell a parent before they can access contraceptive services doesn't reduce their sexual activity - it will just put their health and lives at risk. For example, a recent study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association looked at what sexually active teenage girls seeking services at family planning clinics in Wisconsin would do if they could not get prescription contraceptives unless the clinic notified their parents.3 The results are important for anyone who cares about teenagers' well-being:


Cutting off teenagers' access to contraceptives doesn't stop them from having sex, it just drives them out of doctors' offices. When teenagers don't visit family planning providers, not only do they forego contraceptive services, they also miss or dangerously postpone screening and treatment for STDs, routine gynecological exams, and other vital health care services. Teenagers are already a high risk population:


"Most teens seeking services at [federally funded programs] are already sexually active. Mandating parental involvement is likely to discourage many teens from seeking family planning services, placing them at an increased risk for sexually transmitted diseases and unintended pregnancies. Studies indicate that one of the major causes of delay by adolescents in seeking contraception is fear of parental discovery and that many would avoid seeking services altogether if parental involvement were required."12


The government cannot mandate healthy family communication. Federal law already requires health care providers in federally funded family planning clinics to encourage teenagers to talk to their parents about their health care decisions. Many teens, however, simply will not seek contraception if they cannot obtain it confidentially. Some justifiably fear that disclosure to their parents will lead to abandonment or abuse. Some simply have no caring and responsible parent to whom they can turn. Others live in families where sexuality is never openly discussed. As the New Jersey Supreme Court found, laws mandating parental involvement in teenagers' reproductive health care decisions ""cannot transform a household with poor lines of communication into a paradigm of the perfect American family.""13 Preventing teenagers from getting contraception unless they talk to a parent won't magically change these families; it will just result in teens having unprotected and unsafe sex.


The United States Constitution protects a minor's right to privacy in obtaining contraceptives. In Carey v. Population Services International, the Supreme Court relied on minors' privacy rights to invalidate a New York law that prohibited the sale of condoms to adolescents under 16. The Court concluded that the ""right to privacy in connection with decisions affecting procreation extends to minors as well as adults.""14


Following the principles articulated in Carey, lower courts have invalidated parental involvement requirements for contraception. In Planned Parenthood Association v. Matheson, for example, a federal district court recognized that teenagers' ""'decisions whether to accomplish or prevent conception are among the most private and sensitive,'"" and concluded that ""the state may not impose a blanket parental notification requirement on minors seeking to exercise their constitutionally protected right to decide whether to bear or beget a child by using contraceptives.""16


In addition to minors' constitutional rights, two of the most important sources of federal family planning funds in the nation - Title X and Medicaid - mandate confidentiality for teenagers seeking contraceptive services in those programs. Federal courts have consistently ruled that parental consent and notification requirements impermissibly conflict with this mandate.17


Emergency contraception, "is not harmful to a developing pregnancy," Goodman says. "Language that conflates emergency contraception with abortion is often used to restrict access," she says. "But abortion pills work in very different ways by disrupting and expelling an implanted pregnancy."


Edelman says there are also some places like family planning clinics, Planned Parenthoods or university health centers where women might be able to get same-day IUD placements as emergency contraception.


Yes, though reproductive health advocates are worried that legislators in conservative states that ban abortion will target some forms of emergency contraception next. That's because language on the label says levonorgestrel may interfere with implantation of an already fertilized egg. This was based on old science, says Cleland; a body of evidence now shows the drug works by stopping ovulation, and reproductive health experts are calling for the Food and Drug Administration to change this label. "We need to ensure that these product labels are in line with the scientific evidence," says Cleland.


No law specifically requires parental consent for minors to obtain contraceptives; some physicians can and do prescribe them to minors without informing their parents, it is worth calling to find out first.


The Baltimore Orioles Birdland Membership program is subject to change at any time. Some benefits will be offered on a first come, first served basis where applicable. Accounts that resell 50% or more of their ticket plan inventory are not eligible for all benefits. Any account purchasing solely for resale may be canceled at any time without notice.


June 10, 2013: The Department of Justice announces it will no longer seek an appeal. The federal group alerted Judge Korman that it plans to submit a compliance plan and if the judge he approves it, the Department of Justice will drop its appeal.


In 1994, the California Supreme Court ruled that the use of minor decoys was not entrapment and did not violate due process requirements. Since the Supreme Court ruling hundreds of law enforcement agencies have used the Decoy Program. When used on a regular basis, the percentage of licensees selling to minors drops dramatically.


In addition, the Department strongly encourages law enforcement agencies to notify all licensees by letter of the results of a pending Decoy Program. The objective of this notification is to minimize the sale of alcoholic beverages to minors.


Under a law passed by the state legislature in 1995, licensees face increased penalties for sales to minors. A first time sale may result in a fine or license suspension. A second sale to a minor within a three year period is an automatic license suspension. A third sale to a minor within a three year period may result in license revocation.


The Federal awarding agency must design a program and create an Assistance Listing before announcing the Notice of Funding Opportunity. The program must be designed with clear goals and objectives that facilitate the delivery of meaningful results consistent with the Federal authorizing legislation of the program. Program performance shall be measured based on the goals and objectives developed during program planning and design. See 200.301 for more information on performance measurement. Performance measures may differ depending on the type of program. The program must align with the strategic goals and objectives within the Federal awarding agency's performance plan and should support the Federal awarding agency's performance measurement, management, and reporting as required by Part 6 of OMB Circular A-11 (Preparation, Submission, and Execution of the Budget). The program must also be designed to align with the Program Management Improvement Accountability Act (Pub. L. 114-264).


The cost of services provided by one agency to another within the governmental unit may include allowable direct costs of the service plus a pro-rated share of indirect costs. A standard indirect cost allowance equal to ten percent of the direct salary and wage cost of providing the service (excluding overtime, shift premiums, and fringe benefits) may be used in lieu of determining the actual indirect costs of the service. These services do not include centralized services included in central service cost allocation plans as described in Appendix V to Part 200. 041b061a72


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